The Atman as the Higher Self, the immortality of the soul, the illusion of duality, and the essential unity of all reality is discussed and explained through the analogy of salt in water: As a lump of salt thrown in water dissolves and cannot be taken out again, though wherever we taste the water it is salty, even so, the separate self dissolves in the sea of pure consciousness, infinite and immortal.  Then the gods revered the Udgitha as Prāṇa (vital breath, breath in the mouth, life-principle), and the demons struck it but they fell into pieces. The Chandogya Upanishad is one of the "primary" Upanishads.Together with the Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana and the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad it ranks among the oldest Upanishads, dating to the Vedic Brahmana period (probably before mid-first millennium BCE).. SIXTH CHAPTER. Chandogya Upanishad "Along with Brihadaranyaka Upanishad the Chandogyopanishad is an ancient source of principal fundamentals for Vedanta philosophy. , Thereafter, for a few steps, states Paul Deussen, the Upanishad asserts a hierarchy of progressive meditation that is unusual and different from the broader teachings of the Upanishads. Considering number of references made to this Upanishad in Brahma sutras, it indicates special importance of this Upanishad in Vedanta philosophy. It is associated with the Samaveda.It figures as number 9 in the Muktika canon of 108 Upanishads. Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 2, Motilal Banarsidass.  The Upanishad describes the three branches of dharma as follows: त्रयो धर्मस्कन्धा यज्ञोऽध्ययनं दानमिति प्रथम It figures as number 9 in the Muktika canon of 108 Upanishads. One must adore and revere Understanding as the Brahman. See: Max Muller. Shevetaketu returns home after twelve years of education, arrogant of his knowledge, and is greeted by his father Uddalaka. Dominic Goodall (1996), Hindu Scriptures, University of California Press, Joel Brereton (1986), Tat Tvam Asi in Context, Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, Vol, 136, pages 98-109, G Mishra (2005), New Perspectives on Advaita Vedanta: Essays in Commemoration of Professor Richard de Smet, Philosophy East and West, Vol. One should meditate upon Om as Udgitha - from Chandogya Upanishad 1.1: - Summary: One should meditate upon Om as Udgita; Om is the essence of all essences The upanishad describes the different essences from gross to subtle finally merging in Om: 1.  The struggles of an individual, such as hunger, thirst and events that make him unhappy, states the Upanishad, is Diksha (preparation, effort or consecration for the ceremony/festival). He who knows success, becomes successful. Chandogya Upanishad 77 classes (~55 mins each) Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 160 classes (~50 mins each) Bhagavad Gita.  Deeper than Mind, asserts section 7.4 of the Upanishad, is Sankalpa (सङ्कल्प, will, conviction) because when a man Wills he applies his Mind, when man applies his Mind he engages Speech and Name. Thus, to understand something, studying the essence of one is the path to understanding the numerous manifested forms. Children and family life, in other words, can provide one with the means of realizing one’s connection to God.  John Oman, in his review of the satire in section 1.12 of the Chandogya Upanishad, states, "More than once we have the statement that ritual doings only provide merit in the other world for a time, whereas the right knowledge rids of all questions of merit and secures enduring bliss".. Shevetaketu’s realization of his own divine nature, which twelve years of religious education could not teach him, is only one illustration of the concept of Tat Tvam Asi in the Chandogya Upanishad just as Nachiketa’s discourse with the God of Death provides only one exchange in the Katha Upanishad.  The text asserts that hāu, hāi, ī, atha, iha, ū, e, hiṅ among others correspond to empirical and divine world, such as moon, wind, sun, oneself, Agni, Prajapati, and so on. Kena Upanishad. As people who do not know the country, walk again and again over undiscovered gold that is hidden below inside the earth, thus do people live with Brahman and yet do not discover it because they do not seek to discover the true Self in that Brahman dwelling inside them. The purpose of the works is to engage an audience directly in spiritual discourse in order to raise one’s awareness & assist one in the goal of self-actualization.  One must adore and revere Strength as the manifestation of Brahman. 6 Clues / Factors – Lingam Tatparya Nirnaya 11 4. meditation on the deities) produces more powerful fruit. स्तप एव द्वितीयो ब्रह्मचार्याचार्यकुलवासी तृतीयो Salt dissolves in water, it is everywhere in the water, it cannot be seen, yet it is there and exists forever no matter what one does to the water. The Principal Upanishads: Edited with Introduction, Text, Translation... Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. The Chandogya Upanishad opens with the recommendation that "let a man meditate on Om". , The universe, states the Chandogya Upanishad in section 3.15, is a treasure-chest and the refuge for man.  The nectar itself is described as "essence of knowledge, strength, vigor, health, renown, splendor". , The Upanishad belongs to the Tandya school of the Samaveda. The fable, found in many other Principal Upanishads, describes a rivalry between eyes, ears, speech, mind. , The Upanishad comprises the last eight chapters of a ten chapter Chandogya Brahmana text. Advaita Makaranda 7 classes (~90 mins each) Aparokshanubhuti Mundak Upanishad 28 11. This page was last edited on 7 August 2020, at 06:12. Vaishvanara Vidya Chandogya Upanishad Vaishvanara Vidya from Chandogya Upanishad summary summary of vidya of Vaishvanara from Upanishad of Chandogya. Is it Brahman? This Soul, this Self of mine is that Brahman. 2, pages 292-310. Philosophic Classics: Asian Philosophy, Volume VI, By John M. Koller - Asian Philosophies: 5th Edition. This Eternal Truth is the home, the core, the root of each living being. The Chandogya Upanishad is the Upanishad that belongs to the followers of the Sama Veda. Taittiriya Upanishad: Embedded in the Yajur Veda and also considered one of the older Upanishads. The term Upanishads means to “sit down closely” as if drawing near to listen to some important instruction. Unto him said his father, " O Swetaketu, [go and] abide as a Brahmachari [in the house of a tutor], for verily, child, none of our race has neglected the Vedas and therebybrought disgrace on himself."  The prosperity of an individual, such as eating, drinking and experiencing the delights of life is Upasada (days during the ceremony/festival when some foods and certain foods are consumed as a community).  Man impulsively becomes a servant of his unfulfilled superficial desires, instead of reflecting on his true desires. Max Muller notes that the term "space" above, was later asserted in the Vedanta Sutra verse 1.1.22 to be a symbolism for the Vedic concept of Brahman.  The common essence of the theory, as found in various ancient Indian texts, is that "the inner fire, the soul, is universal and common in all men, whether they are friends or foe, good or bad". Man is a creature of his Kratumaya (क्रतुमयः, will, purpose). The majesty and power of Brahman was too great for human beings to apprehend and so It appeared to people through avatars which took the form of the Hindu gods such a Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, and the many others. , Chandogya Upanishad was in all likelihood composed in the earlier part of 1st millennium BCE, and is one of the oldest Upanishads.  Sun is praised as source of all light and life, and stated as worthy of meditation in a symbolic representation of Sun as "honey" of all Vedas. Unlimitedness is when one sees nothing else, hears nothing else, aware of nothing else, 1. Kena Upanishad: Embedded in the Sama Veda, the Kena develops themes from the Kausitaki and others with a focus on epistemology and self-knowledge. This is clearly expressed in the lines: Can be called lower knowledge. Śvetaketu admits he hasn't, and asks what that is. The full account, however, of Om is this:-2. The precept is repeated nine times at the end of sections 6.8 through 6.16 of the Upanishad, as follows, स य एषोऽणिमैतदात्म्यमिदँ सर्वं तत्सत्यँ स आत्मा तत्त्वमसि श्वेतकेतो PT Raju (1985), Structural Depths of Indian Thought, State University New York Press. All (everything) is the Brahman of the Upanishads. The story also declares the king as a seeker of knowledge, and eager to learn from the poorest. This whole world is his Soul. Page Page 1111 Chandogya Upanishad – Chapter 6 (Dialogue between Uddalaka and Svetaketu) – Some Shlokas Version 1.0, 27th June 2010 Sources Sources Sanskrit: 1.  The verse 8.5.1 asserts that such life of a student is same as the yajna (fire ritual), the istam (oblations offered during the fire ritual), the sattrayanam (community fire ritual festival), the maunam (ritual of ascetic silence), the anasakayanam (fasting ritual), and the aranyayanam (a hermit life of solitude in the forest). He who Grows Forth is the one who Believes, therefore one must desire to understand what yields Growing Forth (Nististhati, निस्तिष्ठति),  The Chandogya Upanishad makes a series of statements in section 3.14 that have been frequently cited by later schools of Hinduism and modern studies on Indian philosophies. SVETASVATARA UPANISHAD. King Janasruti is described as pious, extremely charitable, feeder of many destitutes, who built rest houses to serve the people in his kingdom, but one who lacked the knowledge of Brahman-Atman. Other scholars point to the structure of the verse and its explicit "three branches" declaration.  The Upanishad describes the potential of self-knowledge with the parable of hidden treasure, as follows. There are between 180-200 Upanishads in total but the best known are the 13 which are embedded in the texts of the Vedas. The work concludes with a chant on the importance of knowing the underlying form of existence and not relying on superficial appearances to define what one believes to be true in life. One must adore and revere Food as manifestation of Brahman. तत् त्वम् असि tat tvam asi – “Thou art That” (Chandogya Upanishad 6.8.7 of the Sama Veda) अहम् ब्रह्म अस्मि aham brahmāsmi – “I am Brahman”, or “I am Divine” (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 1.4.10 of the Yajur Veda) Separateness arises from identifying the Self with the body, which is made up elements; when this physical identification dissolves, there can be no more separate self.  Deeper than this name, is speech asserts verse 7.2.1, because speech is what communicates all outer worldly knowledge as well as what is right and what is wrong, what is true and what is false, what is good and what is bad, what is pleasant and what is unpleasant. The boy asks to be able to return safely to his father, to learn the fire sacrifice of immortality and, most importantly, to know what happens after death. , A notable structural feature of Chandogya Upanishad is that it contains many nearly identical passages and stories also found in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, but in precise meter. One could conceivably spend one’s life in study of the Upanishads and, in doing so, it is believed one would progress from a state of spiritual darkness and isolation to the realization that one has never been alone as the true spark of the Divine resides within each soul. In this connection, the Upanishad commences with a story. This is the English translation of the Chandogya-upanishad, including a commentary based on Swami Lokeswarananda’s weekly discourses; incorporating extracts from Shankara’s bhasya. (2020, June 11). Mandukya Upanishad: Embedded in the Athar Veda, this work deals with the spiritual significance of the sacred syllable OM as an expression of the self and essential unity of all things. CHANDOGYA UPNISAD, BRIHAT SAMA - T8- The Chandogya Upanishad (Devanagri: छान्दोग्य उपनिषद्) is one of the "primary" (mukhya) Upanishads. , Rik (ऋच्, Ṛc) is speech, states the text, and Sāman (सामन्) is breath; they are pairs, and because they have love and desire for each other, speech and breath find themselves together and mate to produce song. The 13 Upanishads are: The composition of the first six (Brhadaranyaka to Kena) is dated to between c. 800 - c. 500 BCE with the last seven (Katha to Mandukya) dated from after 500 BCE to the 1st century CE. , The story is notable for declaring that the mark of a student of Brahman is not parentage, but honesty. Books Tat Tvam Asi (Repeated 9 Times) – Chart 17 6.  The precise chronology of Chandogya Upanishad is uncertain, and it is variously dated to have been composed by the 8th to 6th century century BCE in India. , More elevated than Speech, asserts section 7.3 of the Upanishad, is Manas (मनस्, mind) because Mind holds both Speech and Name (outer worldly knowledges). S Sharma and U Sharma (2005), Cultural and Religious Heritage of India: Hinduism, Motilal Banarsidass. Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 18 7. by Swami Sivananda. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. The inmost essence of all beings is same, the whole world is One Truth, One Reality, One Soul. Chandogya Upanishad 11 4. The works take the form of narrative philosophical dialogues in which a seeker approaches a master for instruction in spiritual truth.  Greater than Food, states section 7.10 of the Upanishad, is Āpah (आप, water) because without Water one cannot grow Food, famines strike and living creatures perish. , Living beings are like rivers that arise in the mountains, states the Upanishad, some rivers flow to the east and some to the west, yet they end in an ocean, become the ocean itself, and realize they are not different but are same, and thus realize their Oneness. This seeker may not always know that he or she is seeking such truth and, in some Upanishads, a disembodied voice speaks directly to an audience who then becomes the speaker’s interlocutor in the dialogue or, in other words, the seeker. Taittriya Upanishad 23 9.  Then, Prana (breath, life-principle) prepares to leave, and all of them insist that he stay. Chandogya's exposition of syllable, Good and evil may be everywhere, yet life-principle is inherently good, Space: the origin and the end of everything, A ridicule and satire on egotistic nature of priests, Structure of language and cosmic correspondences, The nature of Dharma and Ashramas (stages) theory, Brahman is the sun of all existence, Madhu Vidya, Individual soul and the infinite Brahman is same, one's soul is God, Sandilya Vidya, The universe is an imperishable treasure chest, Life is a festival, ethics is one's donation to it, Penance is unnecessary, Brahman as life bliss joy and love, the story of Upakosala, Who is our Atman (soul, self), what is the Brahman, Atman exists, Svetaketu's education on the key to all knowledge - Tat Tvam Asi, Oneness in the world, the immanent reality and of Man, From knowledge of the outer world to the knowledge of the inner world, Narada's education on progressive meditation, A paean for the learning, a reverence for the Self. Related Content , The second volume of the first chapter continues its discussion of syllable Om (ॐ, Aum), explaining its use as a struggle between Devas (gods) and Asuras (demons) – both being races derived from one Prajapati (creator of life).  Olivelle disagrees however, and states that even the explicit use of the term asrama or the mention of the "three branches of dharma" in section 2.23 of Chandogya Upanishad does not necessarily indicate that the asrama system was meant.  It calls the syllable Om as udgitha (उद्गीथ, song, chant), and asserts that the significance of the syllable is thus: the essence of all beings is earth, the essence of earth is water, the essence of water are the plants, the essence of plants is man, the essence of man is speech, the essence of speech is the Rig Veda, the essence of the Rig Veda is the Sama Veda, and the essence of Sama Veda is udgitha. 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